Where did my Recent Items go in Windows 8?

I come across many people that have been asking me where the recent items list has gone in Windows 8. While the recent items list in Windows 7 (and prior) was useful, it is no longer available for Windows 8. There are a couple reasons for this with the most obvious being that we don’t have a Start Menu anymore. Possibly another may be the fact that Windows 8 Modern UI Style applications (formerly known as Metro) are meant to be “isolated” from the rest of the system. All well and good for mobile implications, devices, and Modern UI apps, but it leaves the dedicated desktop/laptop users with legacy applications longing for the old ways.

Not to fret though, there is some of this functionality still available to us, however the focus to use it is a bit different. Primarily you will find that your pinned start menu items are now functionally mimicked in the taskbar pinning. Because of this you most likely will find yourself pinning your most-used apps to the taskbar just as you did with apps to the start menu in Windows 7. I have mixed feelings about this, but irrelevantly, lets show you how to get some of your recent items functionality back.

Application’s recent list (Jump List)

Recent Items for applications (Jump Lists) are located in the application shortcut , just like Windows 7 had from the start menu . The problem though is that the list is not accessible from the start screen, but it is available if you pin it to the taskbar. I will show you how to do this using Microsoft Word 2010 as an example.

  1. Press the Windows Logo key on your keyboard and type “word” (you can stop as soon as you see the application appear). You can also just open the start screen and find Microsoft Word 2010 from the list of shortcuts and tiles.
    Windows 8 Start Menu search
  2. Right-click on the application to make the options appear at the bottom of the Start Panel. Click on “Pin to taskbar” to add the application to the taskbar (Press “Esc” to exit the Start Panel and go back to your desktop). Windows 8 Start Menu shortcut properties
  3. Once the application has been added to the taskbar, you can now see a list of recent files (Jump List) that you opened by right-clicking on it in the taskbar.
    Windos 8 Recent Items or Jump List

Editing setting for the Jump List

OK, now that you have added an application and have access to its recent items, you may want to make some modifications so that you can expand or shrink the number of files listed. This list of files and settings are known as the “Jump List” for the application. The Jump List properties are in the taskbar properties, just like previously in Windows 7. To view or change the settings, right-click on the task bar and select Properties from the options menu. Click on the Jump List tab and adjust your settings according to your preferences

taskbar properties dialog

Recent Items List

Applications and Jump Lists are all fine a good if you remember which app you were using or have it pinned to the taskbar. However, there are times that you just need to find the file you just saved from your seldom used application and locating it in the recently used list would be nice. The great thing is that this still exists, you just have to link to it.

This symbolic link to the recent items folder is similar to the Recent Items in Windows 7, however this list is of everything you have accessed and is not filtered down to a limited number of items. That means that you will have a large number of items to sort through. However, this is still way less than if you were doing a search for a file from the Start Screen. To add the recent items to your start menu  perform the following (this is an object and therefore not pinnable to the taskbar as a menu folder or application):

  1. Open explorer and browse to C:\Users\<your username>
  2. Right-click on “Recent” and select “Pin to Start”
    image
  3. You can then find it in the start menu and rename it to something you find faster to type in Search or leave it as is.

Bonus Tip

Now that you have the recent items folder and see all the shortcuts, how do you identify which file you want? If you hover your mouse over an item, the item’s location is displayed and you can use this information to assist you in determining the file you want.

Recent Items shortcut location

Closing

Windows 8 does take a little getting used to. However, after using it since Spring, I have a hard time going back to Windows 7 or previous OS’s. Hopefully these tips will help you better utilize your system and make finding your recent files a little faster process.

Jason Condo
Principal Consultant, Systems Management and Operations

Using UDP-SIP with Exchange UM and Lync 2010

Attachment: https://bennettadelson.wordpress.com/2012/06/04/using-udp-sip-with-exchange-um-and-lync-2010/kamailio-cfg/ (remember to change extension)

Attachment: asterisk.tar.gz (remember to change extension)

I am working on and off with a client that is deploying Exchange 2010 Unified Messaging and Lync 2010 in their environment. They want to use Exchange UM with a hosted SIP-based VoIP system from a provider that I will refer to as “PhoneCo” for the sake of discussion. Furthermore, they want their Lync environment to work with the Exchange voicemail, and by the way, think it would be nice if they could experiment with Enterprise Voice functionality. Luckily, PhoneCo offers SIP trunks, and will trunk from the hosted VoIP environment to Exchange UM. So all is good, right?

The Problem Statement

Ha ha, of course I am joking. Because although Microsoft talks SIP, and PhoneCo talks SIP, we hit upon a long-standing issue. Microsoft refuses to support UDP SIP (they have their reasons, I won’t debate the point here) while PhoneCo refuses to support TCP SIP. Thus, we have an impasse.

Solution Overview

The official, standard answer to this is to use a Session Border Controller (SBC), which is essentially a SIP middleman box that can do UDP on one end and TCP on the other. A typical SBC also includes firewalling intelligence to prevent denial-of-service and other such nasty behavior. As a result, they generally start at thousands and quickly get into tens of thousands of dollars. In this customer’s case, the SIP trunk is going to be over a private MPLS connection directly between the hosted PBX and the on-premises Microsoft tools, so the customer didn’t want to pay for a lot of security they didn’t need just to deal with this issue.

The customer found a commercial product named Brekeke SIP Server that appears to be $500 to start. This is nice in that (1) it is commercial and (2) it can run on Windows, although it is Java-based so it’s a little messy and gives you one more thing to deal with patching every day or two.

We wanted to see if there was an open-source way to solve this problem. We found a way, and this post documented what we came up with. I have replicated the scenario in a lab, and have since actually simplified things a bit. I have also corrected something we had done to work around an Asterisk “bug” (in quotes because the bug states it’s not really an Asterisk bug) that came up while we were simulating the PhoneCo setup.

So first, here’s the list of VMs that are in the UC Lab:

Hostname IP Description
dc.uclab.local 172.30.1.10 Domain Controller
exchange.uclab.local 172.30.1.12 Exchange 2010
freepbx.uclab.local 172.30.1.11 PhoneCo stand-in
lync.uclab.local 172.30.1.13 Lync 2010
siprouter.uclab.local 172.30.1.14 SIP middleman
tmg.uclab.local 172.30.1.1 TMG 2010
internalclient.uclab.local 172.30.1.100 Test Lync/SIP client

The PhoneCo stand-in is a FreePBX installation using the FreePBX Linux distribution. I am not going to go into details on installing that into a VM because there are plenty of guides on getting that to work. For the purposes of this post I’m going to pretend Asterisk can’t do TCP SIP because that’s what we are looking at with PhoneCo. This also means ignoring all the online info about getting Asterisk to talk to Lync and Exchange using TCP SIP. (Note: Some of these guides assuming port 5065 for talking to Exchange, which is a partial solution. I’ll get into why that’s wrong later on.)

The SIP middleman – SIP router – is a Linux-based CentOS machine running the Kamailio open-source SIP router package. Kamailio is a mature, solid package that is quite amazing in some of what it can do, but I’m ignoring about 99% of it, I think. We may end up needing some of the NAT support eventually at the client, which I’m not getting into here and don’t need for the lab, but otherwise a lot of functionality is actually not in play here.

Preparing the CentOS Machine

So let’s get to it.

  1. I began with a basic minimal CentOS 6.2 installation. Note that I’ve had repeated issues with the Hyper-V Integration Components on this OS so far, so I didn’t bother with them – for a lab it’s not critical. For production you’d care a lot more – the customer uses VMware so this particular issue did not come up.
  2. Next, I logged in as root via SSH (PuTTY is your friend here) and accepted the key when prompted:
    image
    image
  3. I ran yum updateto get all of the current updates for the OS, and rebooted to get the updated kernel loaded.
  4. Using vi, I created /etc/yum.repos.d/kamailio.repowith:
    [kamailio]
    name=Kamailio
    baseurl=http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:/kamailio:/telephony/CentOS_CentOS-6/
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=0

    This looks like this:

    clip_image001

  5. I confirmed that the new repository was visible with yum repolist:clip_image002
  6. I then confirmed that there was a package I could install in that repository with yum list kamailio:
    clip_image003
  7. After confirming the package, I installed it with yum install kamailio:
    clip_image004

    clip_image005
  8. So now I need to configure the beast. Kamailio comes with a very long sample configuration file. Most of it is noise for my use. I tried to trim it down as safely as possible, as well as better fit what I wanted. So using the following commands I saved the shipped file:
    cd /etc/kamailio
    mv kamailio.cfg kamailio.cfg.original
    vi /etc/kamailio.cfg

    And then made mine, which I will explain later after finishing the build instructions:

    #!KAMAILIO
    
    # Remote Hosts
    #!subst "/SIP_UDP_HOST/172.30.1.11/"
    #!subst "/EXCHANGE_UM/172.30.1.12/"
    #!subst "/LYNC_MEDIATION/172.30.1.13/"
    
    listen=172.30.1.14:5060
    listen=172.30.1.14:5065
    listen=172.30.1.14:5067
    
    ####### Global Parameters #########
    
    memdbg=5
    memlog=5
    
    debug=2
    
    log_facility=LOG_LOCAL0
    
    fork=yes
    children=4
    
    disable_tcp=no
    
    auto_aliases=no
    
    /* uncomment and configure the following line if you want Kamailio to
       bind on a specific interface/port/proto (default bind on all available) */
    #listen=udp:10.0.0.10:5060
    
    # life time of TCP connection when there is no traffic
    # - a bit higher than registration expires to cope with UA behind NAT
    tcp_connection_lifetime=3605
    
    ####### Modules Section ########
    
    mpath="/usr/lib/kamailio/modules_k/:/usr/lib/kamailio/modules/"
    
    loadmodule "kex.so"
    loadmodule "tm.so"
    loadmodule "tmx.so"
    loadmodule "sl.so"
    loadmodule "pv.so"
    loadmodule "maxfwd.so"
    loadmodule "usrloc.so"
    loadmodule "textops.so"
    loadmodule "siputils.so"
    loadmodule "xlog.so"
    loadmodule "sanity.so"
    loadmodule "ctl.so"
    loadmodule "cfg_rpc.so"
    loadmodule "mi_rpc.so"
    
    # ----- tm params -----
    # auto-discard branches from previous serial forking leg
    modparam("tm", "failure_reply_mode", 3)
    # default retransmission timeout: 30sec
    modparam("tm", "fr_timer", 30000)
    # default invite retransmission timeout after 1xx: 120sec
    modparam("tm", "fr_inv_timer", 120000)
    
    server_header="Server: PhoneCo Intransigence Coping Solution (PICS) 2.0";
    
    ####### Routing Logic ########
    route {
            if(is_method("OPTIONS")) {
                    xlog("L_INFO","OPTIONS from $si");
                    sl_send_reply("200", "Yes, Microsoft, I am alive");
                    exit();
            }
    
            xlog("L_INFO", "*** M=$rm RURI=$ru F=$fu T=$tu IP=$si ID=$ci");
    
            # Route Exchange extensions
            if((to_uri=~"sip:5992") || (to_uri=~"sip:5999")) {
                    xlog("L_NOTICE", "EXCHANGE UM call, $proto port $op, $ru, $fU");
                    t_on_reply("1");
    
                    # https://issues.asterisk.org/jira/browse/ASTERISK-16862
                    # http://imaucblog.com/archive/2009/10/03/part-1-how-to-integrate-exchange-2010-or-2007-with-trixbox-2-8/
                    replace("Diversion: <sip:5999@SIP_UDP_HOST>;reason=unconditional","MCB-Stripped-Header: Diversion");
    
                    switch($op) {
                            case 5060:
                                    xlog("L_NOTICE", "Redirecting to TCP 5060");
                                    t_relay_to("tcp:EXCHANGE_UM:5060");
                                    exit();
                                    break;
                            case 5065:
                                    xlog("L_NOTICE", "Redirecting to TCP 5065");
                                    t_relay_to("tcp:EXCHANGE_UM:5065");
                                    exit();
                                    break;
                            case 5067:
                                    xlog("L_NOTICE", "Redirecting to TCP 5067");
                                    t_relay_to("tcp:EXCHANGE_UM:5067");
                                    exit();
                                    break;
                    }
            }
    
            # Route Lync extensions
            if(to_uri=~"sip:5...") {
                    replace("To: <sip:", "To: <sip:+");
                    xlog("L_NOTICE", "LYNC call to $tu");
                    t_relay_to("tcp:LYNC_MEDIATION:5068");
                    exit();
            }
    
            # Route the rest to Asterisk
            xlog("L_NOTICE", "Asterisk call to $tu");
            forward_udp("SIP_UDP_HOST", 5060);
    }
    
    onreply_route[1] {
            xlog("L_NOTICE", "Handling reply from Exchange relay, status $rs");
            switch($rs) {
                    case 302:
                            xlog("L_NOTICE", "Saw 302 Redirect response, checking details...");
                            if(search(";transport=Tcp")) {
                                    xlog("L_NOTICE", "Saw TCP redirection, changing redirection to UDP");
                                    replace(";transport=Tcp", ";transport=Udp");
                            } else {
                                    xlog("L_NOTICE", "302 was not matched (!)");
                            }
                            exit();
                            break;
                    case 100:
                            xlog("L_NOTICE", "Saw 100, leaving alone...");
                            exit();
                            break;
            }
    
    }

     

  9. I stared the daemon (read: service) with /etc/rc.d/init.d/kamailio start and confirmed that it started  with /etc/rc.d/init.d/kamailio status:clip_image001
  10. I confirmed it was listening (netstat –an | grep 506):clip_image002
  11. I then opened up the firewall to allow those ports in (okay, thats a lie – I floundered a bit before remembering I had to do this) by editing /etc/sysconfig/iptables and adding after the --dport 22line:
    		-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 5060 -j ACCEPT
    		-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 5065 -j ACCEPT
    		-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 5067 -j ACCEPT
    		-A INPUT -p udp -m state --state NEW -m udp --dport 5060 -j ACCEPT
    		-A INPUT -p udp -m state --state NEW -m udp --dport 5065 -j ACCEPT
    		-A INPUT -p udp -m state --state NEW -m udp --dport 5067 -j ACCEPT

    This looks like this when it’s done:
    image

  12. I then made this kick in by restarting the firewall with /etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables restart.
  13. I next added system logger support for the configured log source by editing /etc/rsyslog.confand adding:
    local0.*                                                 /var/log/kamailio.log

    image

  14. I then made this kick in by reloading the logger configuration with /etc/rc.d/init.d/syslog reload.
    image
  15. I don’t want this log to grow uncontrollably so I configured the logrotate daemon to make a new log every day and save seven of them by creating /etc/logrotate.d/kamailiowith:
    /var/log/kamailio.log {
    	rotate 7
    	missingok
    	daily
    }

    image

Preparing Exchange 2010 and Lync 2010

This is normal Exchange and Lync SIP configuration so I’m not going to get into great detail here. The following are the key points:

  • Make sure Lync has a TCP listener on port 5068 on the mediation server of your choice. There’s no high availability here so pick one and go. As quick hints of where this is done in Topology Builder:
    clip_image001[7]
    clip_image002[8]
    After publishing and running Bootstrapper (Lync Setup) on the Mediation Server as instructed by Topology Builder I ran into (what I consider to be) a bug in Lync shown via the event log – there were LS Mediation Server messages 25075 and 25031 indicating no TCP port is enabled, then that the TCP port was requested but ignored. Restarting the Mediation Server service sorted it out. The Kamailio log will show this working (e. g. tail /var/log/kamailio.log):
    image
  • For Exchange, make sure you have TCP enabled on the UM server (requires a service restart to kick in) and that you have an appropriate IP gateway and unsecured telephone extension dial plan configured against that gateway:
    clip_image001[9]
    clip_image002[10]

And that’s it!

So What Does the Configuration Mean?

OK, so what the heck does the configuration I gave you above mean?  Let’s go through it:

#!KAMAILIO

This is a signature for the configuration file.

# Remote Hosts

#!subst "/SIP_UDP_HOST/172.30.1.11/"
#!subst "/EXCHANGE_UM/172.30.1.12/"
#!subst "/LYNC_MEDIATION/172.30.1.13/" 

listen=172.30.1.14:5060
listen=172.30.1.14:5065
listen=172.30.1.14:5067

This is the super important customization part. The three subst lines replace all references to those text strings with the appropriate IP addresses, while the listen lines allow the router to accept traffic on its IP on three ports – 5060, 5065, and 5067. The latter two are because Exchange – for reasons known to Microsoft but not me – takes UM connections on port 5060 but then redirects them to 5065 or 5067. Remember how above I said that some sites use 5065 and that’s wrong?  That’s because they are assuming all redirects are to 5065, but Exchange might want 5067.

Anyway, the next lines are some configuration stuff that is from the default that I left alone mainly because either the settings were fine (e. g. the syslog facility used) or because I didn’t know the implications in changing them (e. g. the children process count); there’s also the enabling of TCP (normally disabled):

####### Global Parameters ######### 
memdbg=5

memlog=5 
debug=2
log_facility=LOG_LOCAL0 
fork=yes

children=4 
disable_tcp=no 
auto_aliases=no 

# life time of TCP connection when there is no traffic
# - a bit higher than registration expires to cope with UA behind NAT
tcp_connection_lifetime=3605

Next are the modules that I am loading. I know I need some of these for sure – there are others I don’t know about so I left well-enough alone and kept them there:

####### Modules Section ######## 
mpath="/usr/lib/kamailio/modules_k/:/usr/lib/kamailio/modules/" 
loadmodule "kex.so"
loadmodule "tm.so"
loadmodule "tmx.so"
loadmodule "sl.so"
loadmodule "pv.so"
loadmodule "maxfwd.so"
loadmodule "usrloc.so"
loadmodule "textops.so"
loadmodule "siputils.so"
loadmodule "xlog.so"
loadmodule "sanity.so"
loadmodule "ctl.so"
loadmodule "cfg_rpc.so"
loadmodule "mi_rpc.so" 

# ----- tm params -----
# auto-discard branches from previous serial forking leg
modparam("tm", "failure_reply_mode", 3)
# default retransmission timeout: 30sec
modparam("tm", "fr_timer", 30000)
# default invite retransmission timeout after 1xx: 120sec
modparam("tm", "fr_inv_timer", 120000)

The next line sets a server header seen in the SIP headers. It is a fun way to point out that PhoneCo was annoying me as well as to hide the actual software being used:

server_header="Server: PhoneCo Intransigence Coping Solution (PICS) 2.0"

Now comes the real meat. It starts the routing logic for incoming SIP calls looking for the OPTIONS call that Lync and Exchange make every nanosecond (approximately) to check to see if their SIP peers are alive. Hence the status text – the code is all that really matters:

####### Routing Logic ########

route {
        if(is_method("OPTIONS")) {
                xlog("L_INFO","OPTIONS from $si");
                sl_send_reply("200", "Yes, Microsoft, I am alive");
                exit();
        }

The next line just acts as a debugging log showing what came in:

        xlog("L_INFO", "*** M=$rm RURI=$ru F=$fu T=$tu IP=$si ID=$ci");

The dollar-sign pseudo-variables are documented here, should you care: http://www.kamailio.org/wiki/cookbooks/3.2.x/pseudovariables

Anyway, moving on, we have the Exchange routing. Looking at this now, I probably want the two extensions (one for the auto-attendant and one for subscriber access) to be substituted variables, but that will be 2.1 I guess:

# Route Exchange extensions
        if((to_uri=~"sip:5992") || (to_uri=~"sip:5999")) {
                xlog("L_NOTICE", "EXCHANGE UM call, $proto port $op, $ru, $fU");
                t_on_reply("1");

This basically says “if a SIP call is made to extension 5992 or extension 5999, then do this…” and starts by indicating that we are going to do a transactional SIP redirect that, when we see a reply, should go to reply handler “1“, which will come later. After that, we have:

        # https://issues.asterisk.org/jira/browse/ASTERISK-16862
        # http://imaucblog.com/archive/2009/10/03/part-1-how-to-integrate-exchange-2010-or-2007-with-trixbox-2-8/
        replace("Diversion: <sip:5999@SIP_UDP_HOST>;reason=unconditional","MCB-Stripped-Header: Diversion");

Why is this here? Basically, Asterisk does something we don’t want it to do on the Exchange redirect – adds an extra SIP Diversion header – and we want that extra header to go away. I need to replace it with something though, so I just made up a vendor header and used that. This is safe as SIP agents – like HTTP server and clients – ignore headers that they don’t know. Next, we take the UDP session and do a transactional redirect to TCP:

        switch($op) {
                case 5060:
                        xlog("L_NOTICE", "Redirecting to TCP 5060");
                        t_relay_to("tcp:EXCHANGE_UM:5060");
                        exit();
                        break;
                case 5065:
                        xlog("L_NOTICE", "Redirecting to TCP 5065");
                        t_relay_to("tcp:EXCHANGE_UM:5065");
                        exit();
                        break;
                case 5067:
                        xlog("L_NOTICE", "Redirecting to TCP 5067");
                        t_relay_to("tcp:EXCHANGE_UM:5067");
                        exit();
                        break;
                }
        }

I couldn’t come up with a “smart” way to do this better; this is a little wordy but it is clear what is happening. I next route the Lync calls (adding the E.164 “+” sign along the way) based on extension pattern (all other 5xxx extensions besides the two special case ones above), with all others going to the Asterisk side:

        # Route Lync extensions
        if(to_uri=~"sip:5...") {
                replace("To: <sip:", "To: <sip:+");
                xlog("L_NOTICE", "LYNC call to $tu");
                t_relay_to("tcp:LYNC_MEDIATION:5068");
                exit();
        }

        # Route the rest to Asterisk
        xlog("L_NOTICE", "Asterisk call to $tu");
        forward_udp("SIP_UDP_HOST", 5060);
}

Notice that I do forward_udpinstead of t_relay_to because I don’t care about maintaining transactional state in the case of going back to Asterisk, so there’s no reason to waste resources on it. I just tell Kamailio to throw it over the wall and forget about it.

Finally, I handle the reply from Exchange. This is why I made the Exchange piece transactional:

onreply_route[1] {
        xlog("L_NOTICE", "Handling reply from Exchange relay, status $rs");
        switch($rs) {
                case 302:
                        xlog("L_NOTICE", "Saw 302 Redirect response, checking details...");
                        if(search(";transport=Tcp")) {
                                xlog("L_NOTICE", "Saw TCP redirection, changing redirection to UDP");
                                replace(";transport=Tcp", ";transport=Udp");
                        } else {
                                xlog("L_NOTICE", "302 was not matched (!)");
                        }
                        exit();
                        break;
                case 100:
                        xlog("L_NOTICE", "Saw 100, leaving alone...");
                        exit();
                        break;
        }

Notice if I get a redirect from Exchange (which I will for port 5060) I change that from a Tcp redirect to a Udp redirect, then send it on its way.

So, this is what is in the lab right now. I think this works – until PhoneCo gets the line in place we won’t know 100% but I think this is close if it isn’t completely right. We’ll see.

Hope this helps you in your integration scenarios!

— Michael C. Bazarewsky
Principal Consultant, Windows Server and Security

Exchange 2010 RTM Setup Fails with Event ID 1002

While working through an Exchange 2010 RTM installation (to be updated to SP2 of course when the time came) at a customer site, we ran into an error that at first had us baffled:

Exchange Server component Mailbox Role failed.
Error: Error:
The following error was generated when “$error.Clear();
$name = [Microsoft.Exchange.Management.RecipientTasks.EnableMailbox]::DiscoveryMailboxUniqueName;
$dispname = [Microsoft.Exchange.Management.RecipientTasks.EnableMailbox]::DiscoveryMailboxDisplayName;
$dismbx = get-mailbox -Filter {name -eq $name} -IgnoreDefaultScope -resultSize 1;
if( $dismbx -ne $null)
{
$srvname = $dismbx.ServerName;
if( $dismbx.Database -ne $null -and $RoleFqdnOrName -like “$srvname.*” )
{
Write-ExchangeSetupLog -info “Setup DiscoverySearchMailbox Permission.”;
$mountedMdb = get-mailboxdatabase $dismbx.Database -status | where { $_.Mounted -eq $true };
if( $mountedMdb -eq $null )
{
Write-ExchangeSetupLog -info “Mounting database before stamp DiscoverySearchMailbox Permission…”;
mount-database $dismbx.Database;
}

              $mountedMdb = get-mailboxdatabase $dismbx.Database -status | where { $_.Mounted -eq $true };
if( $mountedMdb -ne $null )
{
$dmRoleGroupGuid = [Microsoft.Exchange.Data.Directory.Management.RoleGroup]::DiscoveryManagementWkGuid;
$dmRoleGroup = Get-RoleGroup -Identity $dmRoleGroupGuid -DomainController $RoleDomainController -ErrorAction:SilentlyContinue;
if( $dmRoleGroup -ne $null )
{
Add-MailboxPermission $dismbx -User $dmRoleGroup.Identity -AccessRights FullAccess -DomainController $RoleDomainController -WarningAction SilentlyContinue;
}
}
}
}
” was run: “Couldn’t resolve the user or group “domain.local/Microsoft Exchange Security Groups/Discovery Management.” If the user or group is a foreign forest principal, you must have either a two-way trust or an outgoing trust.”.

Couldn’t resolve the user or group “domain.local/Microsoft Exchange Security Groups/Discovery Management.” If the user or group is a foreign forest principal, you must have either a two-way trust or an outgoing trust.

The trust relationship between the primary domain and the trusted domain failed.

The bolded portion was the key, although we (okay, I – MCB) completely misread it.  We took this to mean that it was an issue with the member server trust, but that of course is a completely different error:

The trust relationship between this workstation and the primary domain failed.

We (okay, I – TB) finally figured out what was up – the customer had two broken domains trusts in the environment.  When asked, the customer said, “oh, yeah, I think we know about that, they are before anyone’s time and we were afraid to touch them.”  That of course was not a helpful answer, but they were onboard with whacking the trusts since they didn’t work anyway.

One of the things that caused us pain here is that there are substantial number of web pages and forum posts about this particular error, but they all relate to SP installation on an existing installation.  They go through recreating system mailboxes and all kinds of other hoops, but that was in our case the completely wrong thing to do.

Once we removed the bad trusts, the installation worked.  Yay.  It’s a case perhaps of “RTFEM.”  There’s a good question here of exactly why Exchange Setup cares here – it knows enough information to find the group in question without going through trusts, but it insists on doing so anyway.  One could even go so far as to this being a bug, although without knowing the team’s reasoning it’s difficult to jump to that conclusion.

In any event, hopefully this post helps other people out.

– Tom Bridge and Michael C. Bazarewsky
”Exchange Rock Stars” (Tom made us say that)

“Previous Versions” and Shadow Copies with Very Long Paths

I was working on a server the other day and needed to recover files from a previous version of a folder through Previous Versions.  (A backup was not available on the particular folder for reasons I won’t get into here.)  I ran into a problem that I couldn’t really find documented very well anywhere and thought I would document it for others.

I first made sure there was a previous version available:

image

In fact, this was through a shadow copy, which will turn out to be very important:

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So, we have the previous state of the folder, it’s in a local snapshot, so I could get it back, right?  Let’s see what happened.  I clicked Open on the Previous Versions tab, then navigated through Explorer to the folder that has the file I want to get.  It turns out this file is nested a few levels deep in a set of long folder names, and has a long filename as its exposed filename:

\\localhost\C$\Users\Administrator\Desktop\Somewhat Long Folder Name\Another really long folder name for a good reason that you do not know\Yet another long nested folder name believe it or not (‎Today, ‎January ‎26, ‎2012, ‏‎12 minutes ago)\Long file name here as well that will be a problem for us soon.txt

Why is the long name a problem?  Well, when I tried to copy the folder out of the shadow copy, I got this 100% correct yet not helpful error:

image

Or, in text form:

The source file name(s) are larger than is supported by the file system. Try moving to a location which has a shorter path name, or try renaming to shorter name(s) before attempting this operation.

Questionable grammar aside, the error’s suggestions, which relate to changing the source, are useless, because shadow copies are read-only.  So now what?

Well, the reason the path is too long is because with the shadow copy overhead added to the path, the filename has a length longer than MAX_PATH, or 260 characters.  I suspect Explorer still cares due to backwards compatibility, which is why the Unicode 32K path length doesn’t come into play, but that’s just a guess.  Anyway, this still leaves the problem of getting a shorter filename.

The answer is to surface or expose the shadow copy as a drive letter.  There are multiple ways to go about this.  The first one that I thought of – to use the diskshadow command that is new in Windows Server 2008 – didn’t work as I expected.  Let’s see what happened, then explain a solution.

First, we find the exact name of the shadow copy.  I listed them to a file (I used diskshadow for consistency, although vssadmin would also let me do that piece), then searched the file in Notepad:

C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop>diskshadow /l shadows.txt
Microsoft DiskShadow version 1.0
Copyright (C) 2007 Microsoft Corporation
On computer:  DEMOSERVER,  1/26/2012 11:20:09 AM

DISKSHADOW> list shadows all

… shadow listing here …

Number of shadow copies listed: 196

DISKSHADOW> exit

C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop>notepad shadows.txt

In this case I wanted the 10:41:53 AM snapshot on January 26, 2012 for the C: drive, which looked like this in the log:

* Shadow copy ID = {1cbf48de-1e49-4ae4-9a24-0c75d3dc4c6d}
– Shadow copy set: {55c21b6c-b34f-4f0c-88df-e03fc952f39e}
– Original count of shadow copies = 1
– Original volume name: \\?\Volume{12cba6d6-7540-11e0-bd41-806e6f6e6963}\ [C:\]
– Creation time: 1/26/2012 10:41:53 AM
– Shadow copy device name: \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy266
– Originating machine: DEMOSERVER
– Service machine: DEMOSERVER
– Not exposed
– Provider ID: {b5946137-7b9f-4925-af80-51abd60b20d5}
– Attributes:  No_Auto_Release Persistent Client_accessible No_Writers Differential

Next, I want to map the path to a shorter location.  I thought I could do this through diskshadow, but it turns out there’s a restriction that prevents this:

DISKSHADOW> expose {1cbf48de-1e49-4ae4-9a24-0c75d3dc4c6d} P:
Client accessible shadow copies cannot be exposed.

The GUID in the expose command is the “Shadow copy ID” given in the listing.  Because the shadow copy is accessible to the client (through Previous Versions), I couldn’t directly map it to a drive.  So now what?

Well, the trick was on a Microsoft blog — using a symbolic link to get to the shadow copy:

C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop>mklink /d c:\s \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy266\
symbolic link created for c:\s \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy266\

The link is from a very short-named local folder to the “Shadow copy device name” given in the listing.  As explained in the blog post, I didn’t forget to add a trailing slash to the mapping (it won’t work if you don’t do that).  Now, I can look at this linked version in Explorer, and copy the data!

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Then, I deleted the symbolic link with rmdir c:\s to clean up, and that was that!

I hope this helps should you run in to the same error trying to copy from a previous version.

— Michael C. Bazarewsky